We are Delphi - Innovation for the Real World
Delphi is globally known as a topnotch supplier of electronics and advanced technologies for various market segments, including automotive and commercial vehicle industries. With major technical centers, manufacturing sites, and customer support facilities in over 30 countries worldwide, Delphi continues to develop real-world innovations that deliver smarter, safer, and more efficient products. Explore innovation at www.delphi.com
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The "Ins" and "Outs" of Control Modules
The goal of any engine management system (EMS) is to control combustion so emissions, fuel economy and performance are regulated at optimal levels. This is achieved by monitoring operating conditions on a moment-by-moment basis, typically via the powertrain control module (PCM). The EMS measures the amount of air entering the engine, applies the right quantity of gasoline and then calculates when to ignite the mixture in the cylinders to attain a vehicle's specific emission, fuel economy and performance objectives.
The EMS continually monitors input data to calculate operating conditions and control outputs to "close the gap" between what is currently occurring and what's desired. The PCM employs an "if this ... then that" strategy to achieve this. Input data from a variety of monitored aspects of the powertrain provide the "if this" part of the calculation and execution strategy. Common input data includes, but is not limited to:
- Throttle position – determined by the signals from the throttle position sensor, which relays driver demand on the powertrain. It"s also used to validate airflow and engine mechanical timing.
- Airflow – determined by signals from the mass airflow sensor to calculate the quantity of gasoline needed to support combustion.
- Engine speed/piston position – determined by signals from the crankshaft position sensor. The speed or velocity of the crankshaft tells the EMS whether the crankshaft is accelerating from adequate combustion or decelerating due to misfires. Crankshaft signals are required by the EMS to keep the fuel pump relay energized.
- Camshaft position – determined by signals from the camshaft position sensor, which are used to synchronize fuel injector timing to crankshaft position and control spark timing.
- Exhaust oxygen content – determined by signals from oxygen sensors. Oxygen content validates that proper combustion has occurred and is used to drive short-term fuel trim to control the catalyst's operating environment and meet performance objectives. OBD II compliant vehicles must operate in "self-regulating" closed loop fuel control within 4 minutes and 20 seconds of an engine start. Heated oxygen sensors reduce this time and can provide closed loop control within 30 seconds of a start-up, long before the powertrain is up to operating temperature.
- Intake air temperature – determined by signals from the intake air temperature sensor. Intake air temperature is an essential part of the spark timing calculations to maintain proper combustion temperatures for catalyst efficiency.
- Engine coolant – determined by signals from the engine coolant temperature sensor. During start-up and open loop and closed loop warm-up phases of EMS operation, fixed pulse width schedules are established based on coolant temperature.
- Vehicle speed – determined by signals from the vehicle speed sensor. Vehicle speed is used in the control of transmission shifts and to validate vehicle deceleration in conjunction with throttle angle.
The "then that" part of the computing sequence is provided by such output components as fuel injectors, ignition coils, emission control solenoids, transmission shift solenoids, plus fuel pump and air conditioning compressor relays. These parts are typically provided either battery or ignition switched power and are turned "on" and "off" by having the PCM controlling the ground path. They are switched on and off based on calculations that use data from input components. The EMS then uses input data to validate that the expected output control actually occurred.
Changing a vehicle"s operating strategy can be accomplished by reprogramming a PCM. In some instances, a replacement PCM requires vehicle specific programs to be installed before the PCM will function. Reprogramming, or a "reflash," updates the module"s vehicle-specific calibrations. It does not modify the base operating instructions that allow the PCM to function as a computer. Physical malfunctions in a PCM including memory, circuit boards and internal wiring cannot be repaired by reprogramming a module. In these instances, a replacement PCM would be required.
When servicing A/C systems, specifically during compressor repairs, it pays to look beyond the basics. Of course, solid installation and repair skills are essential for any technician that wants to do the job right the first time. But problems that can crop up when installing compressors aren't always obvious — and overlooking them can result in unwanted comebacks or warranty issues. Here are some tips to help ensure that every installation or repair is a successful one.
Inspect the system for contamination
When repairing any A/C failure, carefully inspect all components in the system for any signs of foreign material or contamination. These may include metal chips, contaminated lubricant or chemical residue found in any part of the system. Properly replacing the components, correctly flushing the system and installing an in-line filter will help to ensure the longevity of the repair.
Use the right lubricant oil
Failure to add the correct amount or type of lubricant oil will cause compressor failure, leaving the part unwarrantable. For vehicles with R-134a systems, use PAG oil RL488 (Delphi part no. RL10006) for H6, V5 and R4 compressors and PAG oil RL 897 (Delphi part no. RL10007) for CVC compressors. Use 525 mineral oil for vehicles with R-12 systems. Use of any other lubricant, such as ester oil, can lead to premature system failure, especially under extreme operating conditions.
For compressors with crankcase bolts, the oil must be installed through the crankcase bolt hole. All other compressors can have the oil removed from the discharge port and added through the suction port. Once the lubricant has been put into the compressor, is it important to turn the compressor shaft with the appropriate hand tool, such as the Delphi Compressor Turning Tool (CB10049), so the compressor is properly lubricated before it is installed on the vehicle. Failure to do this can also result in premature compressor failure. To further determine the correct amount, type and process for applying lubrication, consult the replacement checklist/instruction sheet located in the part's original box.
The importance of proper evacuation
It is important to remove all moisture inside the system when replacing a compressor. This is accomplished by evacuating the system until the correct vacuum level is reached. If all moisture is not removed when the system is recharged, the moisture will react with the oil and will become acidic and corrode the inside of the system components, creating the potential for premature failure and poor performance issues.
Typical unwarrantable situations include complete compressor kits with no evidence of installation; parts that are damaged due to rough handling and/or incorrect installation (such as broken electrical connectors or holes in the compressor case); contamination of the compressor; and severe overheating of the compressor, indicated by burnt paint or blistered/melted labeling.
When servicing fuel pumps and fuel modules, it pays to look beyond the basics. Of course, solid installation and repair skills are essential for any technician who wants to do the job right the first time. But problems that can crop up when installing fuel pumps and fuel modules aren't always obvious — and overlooking them can result in unwanted comebacks.
Here are some tips to help ensure that every fuel pump and fuel module installation or repair is a successful one:
Inspect the electrical connector for signs of damage
For a variety of reasons, some vehicles may be prone to electrical connector failures. These failures often can be seen as overheated terminals and wiring, so it"s essential to replace the mating vehicle wiring when replacing the fuel module or pump on these vehicles. Otherwise, the new service part can fail prematurely. If a new wiring pigtail is included with the module or fuel pump kit, be sure to install it. The new pigtail may often look different than the original part, but the improved electrical connector can easily be installed by using the parts and following the detailed instructions included in the kit.
Examine the fuel tank and fuel module bucket for contamination
Fuel pump and module failures can often be attributed to contaminants found inside the fuel tank or fuel module. These contaminants can cause excessive wear of the fuel pump, plug strainer and filters. If contamination is found, the fuel tank should be drained and cleaned before installing the new part. Also look for rust inside the tank or bucket of the fuel module, which indicates water is in the fuel delivery system. Metal fuel lines and fuel rails should be examined for signs of internal rust or corrosion and replaced as needed. Contaminants can be drawn into a vehicle's fuel system if the evaporative emissions system is not operating properly. It"s essential to determine the cause or source of the contamination and correct it before installing the new part.
Install the float arm onto the level sensor of the fuel module
New fuel module service kits may come with the float arm assembly detached from the fuel level sensor. It"s important to install the float arm onto the level sensor prior to installing the fuel module into the tank. Failure to install the float arm will cause the fuel level sensor to operate incorrectly and create a customer complaint. Detailed instructions on how to properly install the float arm onto the level sensor are included in the fuel module service kit.
Replace the fuel filter and strainer when installing a new fuel pump or fuel module
Most fuel module kits include new strainers with the fuel module assembly. These strainers can be internal, external or both depending on the fuel module design. If a new strainer is not included with the fuel pump, one should be obtained and installed on the pump prior to installation into the vehicle. Be sure it"s correctly seated so contaminants can't pass around it. Replace the fuel filter on vehicles that have serviceable fuel filters. Many late-model fuel modules now incorporate the fuel filter into the fuel module, so the filter is replaced when the module is replaced.
Delphi offers a broad array of fuel pumps, fuel level sensors and other fuel system components for the aftermarket, all developed and engineered based on Delphi's decades of experience with original equipment (OE) applications. In particular, Delphi"s fuel pumps have a reputation for quiet, durable performance with little flow or pressure variation in hot fuel situations — features proven in competitive studies. For more information visit iam.delphi.com.
Delphi boasts of a comprehensive product lineup covering more than 50% of engine management repairs in North America. Delphi products largely prevent possibilities of malfunction, such as the "check engine light" system. Each product follows stringent emissions regulations.
Ignition Delphi offers a wide selection of ignition components that deliver precise and repeatable spark timing, including ignition coils and modules, distributor caps, and rotors. These components are suitable for import and domestic vehicle use.
Emission Delphi covers a broad range of applications with its emissions systems components that provide optimum exhaust and air flow. These components include oxygen sensors, EGR valves, and idle control valves.
Sensors Delphi's comprehensive sensor lineup efficiently monitors various engine functions, including temperature, engine knock, air flow, speed and position, and pressure. These sensors deliver correct and precise feedback to the vehicle's control modules to guarantee optimum vehicle performance.
Planar Oxygen Sensors (image on the right)
(A)Built with a dual-layer protection shield for long-lasting and reliable operation; (B) Excellent planar-sensing element with built-in heater provides immediate light-off time (LOT) at six seconds for instant closed-loop activation, making it the fastest in the industry. The closest competitor has an LOT of 10-12 seconds, potentially releasing around 40% to 50% noxious cold-start emissions to the atmosphere; (C) Protected with a stainless steel housing that can last up to 15 years or approximately 150,000 miles and has been tested for durability, performance, and environmental compliance.
- Delphi offers efficient ignition systems components that are suitable for both import and domestic vehicles, including ignition coils and modules, distributor caps, and rotors. These components provide precise and continuous spark timing, and they have been tested to follow stringent emissions requirements and fuel efficiencies.
- As essential parts of the engine management system, Delphi ignition coils and modules are designed to maximize fuel efficiency and engine performance.
- Delphi provides a wide variety of emissions systems components that cover a broad range of applications, including oxygen sensors, EGR valves, and idle air control valves. These components deliver maximum exhaust and air flow, minimize potential for malfunction with the "check engine light" system, and adhere to federal emissions regulations.
- Delphi oxygen sensors deliver the fastest light-off time (LOT) in the industry—only at six seconds compared to the competitor's 10-12 seconds. This allows quicker closed-loop activation and prevents harmful cold-start emissions from entering the atmosphere.
- Delphi EGR valves are suitable for a broad range of applications and are offered in port, backpressure, and linear configurations.
- OE cable configurations—Delcore, Composite High Temperature, and Wire Wound (where applicable)—provide optimum performance in every application
- OE-quality boots, terminals, and lead lengths with application-precise seven- and eight-millimeter cable sizes for easier installation
- With the latest component updates, Delphi's remanufacturing process minimizes difficulties with flashing and improves bay turns
- More than 70 million Delphi-manufactured ECMs and PCMs are used across North America today
- Offered in two different designs: universal pressure and mini-cartridge pressure
- Precisely engineered components for return and demand fuel system applications
- Superior fuel control precision
- Flexibility in assembly
- With patented protective sensor coating, these sensors are highly resistant to contamination and are fully protected against silicone, phosphorous, and other fuel/oil additives. Contaminated sensors are detrimental to vehicle operation and may trigger "check engine lights", causing engines to run too rich and burn up to 25% additional fuel. This may also cause excess carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions to enter the atmosphere.
- Provide the fastest light-off time (LOT) in the industry—only at six seconds compared to the competitor's 10-12 seconds. This ensures quicker closed-loop activation and prevents noxious cold-start emissions from penetrating the atmosphere.
- Proprietary "dry to touch" anti-seize compound on the sensors ensures quick, no-mess installations. This compound, unlike the wet, anti-seize ones applied on competitor products, prevents contamination and accidental "check engine light" signals.
- Can be used with most fuel types and additives, including extended operation with ethanol blended fuels (i.e. E85)
- Tested for environmental compliance and performance. Extremely durable and can last up to 15 years/150,000 miles.
- Complete product lineup includes throttle body, central port, and multi-port fuel injectors. For a wider selection of selling options, injectors are individually sold and are not packaged in sets.
- Extremely low drip tip boosts fuel economy and ensures minimal fuel leakage during vehicle idle.
- Designed to deliver the precise and required amount of pressurized, atomized fuel to each cylinder. Accurate metering is guaranteed even under extreme temperature and condition (-40°F to 230°F).
- Superior fuel filtering protection effectively eliminates contaminants, ensuring optimum performance.
- Reduced engine noise
- Can be used for a broad range of domestic applications and are compatible with various ethanol and alcohol fuel blends
Approximately three out of four vehicles in North America are equipped with Delphi fuel management systems, including fuel pumps, modules, and hanger/sender assemblies. Delphi boasts of a comprehensive product lineup with over 80% fuel pump coverage, and this includes the highest quality fuel system components. Delphi fuel modules provide fast-pressure rise for quicker engine starts and are built with a two-strainer system for maximum durability. Delphi turbine pumps deliver enhanced passenger comfort in the cockpit with the help of the patented OE Gen IV turbine pump technology that offers a quieter, long-lasting operation and has a decreased noise level—around 5 to 10 dB lower. Last but not the least, Delphi OE turbine pumps feature a smaller, lighter design that effectively reduces evaporative emissions and improves fuel economy.
Delphi Fuel Modules (image on the right)
(A) OE turbine pump produce noticeably lower noise levels in the cockpit—5 to 10 dB lower; (B) Two-strainer system offers long-lasting durability; (C) Built-in OE fuel pressure regulator (1) Keeps pressure at fuel rail (2) Prevents fuel return from engine compartment to lessen vehicle EVAP emissions.
Delphi's upper intake manifolds are highly resistant to heat, antifreeze coolants, and water in varying degrees of temperature. Manufactured using superior-quality nylon and reinforced with durable fiberglass, this part complies with strict OEM dimensions and allows direct replacement without any modifications required.
Parts are designed to OEM dimensions allowing direct replacement with no modifications required.
- Brings back fast-pressure performance and reliability, delivering better pumping capacity through less energy
- Internal springs prevent fuel tube chafing and minimizes loss of fuel flow and pressure, leading to sustained durability and improved stability
- Fuel level sensor is equipped with multiple redundant buttons to guarantee optimum security and durability, as opposed to bent fingers which increases the risk of premature wear and reduced contact
- Steel-plated, all-metal internal components guarantee long-lasting durability and service life
- Both positive displacement and turbine pumps
- OE-quality fuel vapor pressure sensor reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is application-specific, preventing accidental "check engine light" signals
- Two-strainer system efficiently keeps out contaminants, resulting in extended pump life
- With a revolutionary design and durable construction, Delphi pumps are made to function properly even under extreme temperatures and have the capacity to prevent low-fuel hesitation, leading to reduced failure rates.
- Box includes complete repair components, including OE pump, fuel/vapor pipes and valves, and fuel level sensor
- Ceramic card resistor technology delivers improved accuracy and durability
- Stainless steel sender base enhances aesthetic appeal and offers long-lasting durability
Heating and Cooling
Delphi compressors, radiators, condensers, blower motors, evaporators, heater cores, and accumulator/dehydrators and receiver/driers maximize weight efficiencies, effectively delivering enhanced performance and increased gas mileage. Potential fuel savings of up to .5 mpg and up to 15% drop in power consumption can be achieved with these OE-quality components. Delphi heating and cooling parts employ the latest OE technology to guarantee optimum moisture control and corrosion protection, providing ultimate passenger comfort and extended service life.
Delphi CVC Compressors (image on the right)
Three components are patented technology: (A) CVC is adaptable to both pneumatic and electronic control with its swash-plate variable, allowing high-speed operation of up to 9,200 RPM; (B) Redesigned piston offers increased durability under low charge and low flow conditions; (C) Reed valve and valve plate minimizes noise and enhances reed durability.
- Lightweight design guarantees optimum performance and efficiency
- Smooth pumping operation delivers quiet and reliable performance
- Lightweight and compact piston design offers long-lasting durability
Compact Variable Compressors (CVC):
- Manufactured with a swash plate design originally used on Delphi V5 and V7 compressors
- Smooth and consistent operation without clutch cycling, providing increased air conditioning performance and gas mileage
- Adjustable displacement capability meets and exceeds vehicle air conditioning specifications
V5 and V7 Compressors:
- Smooth and consistent operation that's free of clutch cycling, resulting in enhanced air conditioning performance and gas mileage
- Adjustable displacement capability meets and exceeds vehicle air conditioning specifications
- V7 compressors boast of improved strength, lesser noise, and reduced vibration
- V7 compressors are suitable for R-134a systems
- V5 compressors works efficiently with R-12 and R-134a systems
- Reliable and lightweight
- Enhanced OE design provides improved performance and long-lasting durability
- Compact and lightweight with a durable brazed-aluminum construction
- Microport condenser tubes deliver superior heat transfer performance
- All internal passages are designed using advanced manufacturing processes and are tested to guarantee leak-free, dried, and capped solution for safe shipping
- Specific applications such as the orifice tube located in the outlet pipe, eliminating the need for separate replacement
- Integrated receiver driers contain leak detection dye, allowing faster system diagnosis
- Constructed using a compact, lightweight, brazed-aluminum material
- Superior performance-to-weight ratio
- Manufactured using corrosion-resistant alloy Constructed from corrosion-resistance alloy
- Superior water-shedding capability helps eliminate odor-producing mold growth Odor-producing mold growth are eliminated with the help of improved water-shedding capability
- Optimum heat transfer construction
- Brazed-aluminum construction that's compact and lightweight
- Superior heat transfer performance
- Maximum performance-to-weight ratio
- Manufactured using premium-grade alloy that is highly resistant to corrosion
- To produce a powertrain cooling module, the fan shroud and air conditioning condenser can be conveniently placed on Delphi radiator tanks.
- Tubes and tanks are constructed using compact and lightweight brazed-aluminum material
- Superior performance-to-weight ratio
- Seals are included (where applicable) for easier installation
- Optimum performance even under extreme conditions, such as severe temperature changes, humidity, and dust and vibration
- Built-in permanent magnets and lubricated bearings deliver reliable motor operation and extended product life
- OE-quality fans are pre-balanced to the blower motor, resulting in vibration-free operations
- Constructed using lightweight and durable aluminum
- OE-designed internal components deliver enhanced liquid and vapor separation
- Molecular sieve desiccant delivers superior moisture control and corrosion protection, resulting in enhanced efficiency and performance